医生报告美国首次基因编辑治疗癌症试验
Doctors Report First US Tests of Gene Editing for Cancer

医生报告美国首次基因编辑治疗癌症试验

Doctors Report First US Tests of Gene Editing for Cancer

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医生报告美国首次基因编辑治疗癌症试验

Doctors Report First US Tests of Gene Editing for Cancer

2019-11-21

医生报告了美国首次尝试利用基因编辑来帮助患者对抗癌症。


医生报告了美国首次尝试利用基因编辑来帮助患者对抗癌症。
Doctors have reported on the first attempts in the United States to use gene editing to help patients fight cancer.

医生表示,在三名患者身上进行测试后,似乎能证明一种基因编辑是安全的。
The doctors say one form of gene editing appeared to be safe when tested in three patients.

但目前还不清楚这种方法对癌症治疗或患者存活率有何长期影响。
But it is not yet known what long-term effects the method will have on cancer treatment or patient survival rates.

测试中使用了一种名为CRISPR/Cas9的基因编辑技术,一项医学研究最近报告了这种方法。
A gene editing tool called CRISPR/Cas9 was used in the tests, which were recently reported in a medical study.

近几年来,这一方法被发现可以用来改变构成人类DNA的遗传物质。
The method was discovered in recent years as a way to change the genetic material that make up a person’s DNA.

DNA是脱氧核糖核酸的简称。
DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid.

这是一种携带活体细胞遗传信息的物质。
It is the substance that carries genetic information in the cells of living things.

CRISPR技术使改变DNA成为可能,以此来增加所需基因或去除某些引发问题的基因。
The CRISPR tool makes it possible to change DNA to add needed genes or take some away if they lead to problems.

宾夕法尼亚大学健康医疗体系的癌症研究人员从三名患者的血液中提取了免疫系统细胞。
Cancer researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Health System took immune system cells from the blood of the three patients.

他们改变了这些细胞的基因结构,以帮助识别并对抗癌症。
They changed the structure of the cells’ genes to help them recognize and fight cancer.

然后他们将编辑后的细胞放回患者体内。
They were then put back in the patients.

研究人员说,完成编辑过程没有产生任何副作用。
The researchers said the editing process was completed with no serious side effects.

这种治疗方法移除了三个基因,因为这些基因可能一直在限制免疫系统细胞攻击癌症的能力。
The treatment removed three genes that might have been restricting the ability of the immune system cells to attack the cancer.

之后,将第四个新基因导入患者体内,以帮助其他细胞有效地进行工作。
A new, fourth gene was added to help the others work effectively.

其中两名患者患有多发性骨髓瘤,这是一种血癌,另外一名患者患有肉瘤这种在结缔组织或软组织中形成的癌症。
Two of the patients suffer from multiple myeloma, a blood cancer, and the third has sarcoma, cancer that forms in connective or soft tissue.

所有患者在接受多次传统癌症疗法后都没有效果。
All had failed with repeated traditional cancer treatments.

“这是迄今为止尝试过的最复杂的遗传和细胞工程,”该研究的领导者爱德华·施塔特梅尔告诉美联社。
“It’s the most complicated genetic, cellular engineering that’s been attempted so far,” the study’s leader, Edward Stadtmauer, told The Associated Press (AP).

“这证明我们可以安全地对这些细胞进行基因编辑。”
“This is proof that we can safely do gene editing of these cells.”

施塔特梅尔表示,到目前为止,这些细胞存活了下来,并一直在正常繁殖。
So far, the cells have survived and have been reproducing as they should be, Stadtmauer said.

两到三个月后,一名患者的癌症继续恶化,而另一名患者的情况则相对稳定。
After two to three months, one patient’s cancer continued to worsen, while the condition of another patient was unchanged.

第三名患者接受治疗的时间较短,无法有效地衡量其病情发展。
The third patient was treated too recently to effectively measure her progress.

研究人员计划再对15名患者进行治疗。
The researchers plan to expand the experimental treatment to 15 more patients.

施塔特梅尔说,由于基因编辑是一种全新的疗法,尚不清楚何时能看到重大抗癌效果。
Stadtmauer said that since the gene editing treatment is so new, it is not clear how soon major anti-cancer effects will be seen.

他说,必须对患者追踪研究,而且需要进行更多测试。
Patients must be followed further and more tests will be needed, he said.

“现在还为时过早,不过我已经非常受鼓舞,”独立专家亚伦·格尔兹(Aaron Gerds)对美联社记者说。
“It’s very early, but I’m incredibly encouraged by this,” one independent expert, Aaron Gerds, told an AP reporter.

格尔兹是俄亥俄州克利夫兰的克利夫兰诊所的癌症专家。
Gerds is a cancer specialist at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.

他补充说,治疗某些血癌的其他细胞疗法也有非常好的效果,甚至“是接受无法治愈的疾病并治疗它们”。
He added that other cell therapies for some blood cancers have worked very well, even “taking diseases that are uncurable and curing them.”

他说,基因编辑可以提供一种改善这些治疗的方法。
He said gene editing could provide a way to improve on those treatments.

据报道,中国科学家已经在癌症患者身上尝试了CRISPR方法。
Chinese scientists are reported to have attempted the CRISPR method on cancer patients.

美国的研究是在中国以外完成的第一个已知研究。
The U.S. study is the first known research to be completed outside China.

研究人员花了两年多的时间才得到美国政府的批准,得以进行尝试。
It took researchers over two years to get approval from the U.S. government to try it.

关于这项研究的更多详细情况将在12月举行的美国血液学会年会上公布。
More details about the study are to be provided at the yearly conference of the American Society of Hematology in December.

布莱恩·林恩为您播报。
I’m Bryan Lynn.