医生建议给婴儿吃花生碎 以降低过敏风险
Doctors: Give Babies Crushed Peanuts to Reduce Allergy Risk

医生建议给婴儿吃花生碎 以降低过敏风险

Doctors: Give Babies Crushed Peanuts to Reduce Allergy Risk

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医生建议给婴儿吃花生碎 以降低过敏风险

Doctors: Give Babies Crushed Peanuts to Reduce Allergy Risk

2019-09-08

医生建议父母在婴儿一周岁前喂食花生制品,以降低孩子花生过敏的风险。该建议出现在给卫生保健提供者的的新指南中。它发表在《加拿大医学协会期刊》(CMAJ)上。


医生建议父母在婴儿一周岁前喂食花生制品,以降低孩子花生过敏的风险。
Doctors are advising parents to feed babies peanut products before their first birthday to reduce the child’s risk of developing a peanut allergy.

该建议出现在给卫生保健提供者的的新指南中。
The advice appears in a new guide for health care providers.

它发表在《加拿大医学协会期刊》(CMAJ)上。
It was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ).

新指南由一批过敏专家和儿童护理专家共同撰写。
A team of allergy experts and child care specialists wrote the new guidance.

他们建议,从婴儿4个月大开始,在他们的饮食中添加细腻的花生碎。
They suggest adding soft, crushed peanuts to a baby’s diet beginning at four months of age.

他们称,婴儿在一岁以前应该持续进食“大量的”花生制品。
They say babies should continue to get "substantial" amounts of peanut products in their first year of life.

乔治·杜伊特博士就职于英国伦敦国王学院。
Doctor George du Toit is with King’s College London in Britain.

他帮助准备了新指南。
He helped prepare the guide.

他表示,很重要的是,要提前咨询医生,以确保孩子没有过敏反应。
He said it is important to speak with a doctor early on to make sure the child does not already have an allergic reaction.

鲁奇·古普塔博士指出,新指南“彻底打翻”了此前给家长们的建议。
The new guidance is a "complete reversal" from earlier advice to parents, noted Doctor Ruchi Gupta.

早期的指南建议,要等孩子更大些的时候,再给他们食用花生制品。
Earlier guidelines suggested waiting to feed children peanut products until they were much older.

古普塔是伊利诺伊州埃文斯顿西北大学的儿科医生和食物过敏研究员。
Gupta is a pediatrician and food allergy researcher at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.

她预测,很多家长将会担心要依照新指南做。
She predicted that many parents will be fearful of following the new guidance.

古普塔告诉路透社:“有父母对此表示抗拒......,因为他们害怕在家里让孩子食用花生制品,可能会出什么问题。”
There’s...resistance from parents because they’re fearful about doing this at home with their infants and what may happen, Gupta told the Reuters news agency.

花生过敏通常发生在孩子2岁以前。
Peanut allergies usually develop before age 2.

这对父母来说是主要的担忧。他们需要密切留意孩子在家里家外吃的所有东西。
They are a major worry for parents, who need to closely watch everything their children eat inside and outside the home.

对花生的过敏反应包括皮肤过敏、呼吸困难和低血压。
Allergic reactions to peanuts can include skin conditions, difficulty breathing and low blood pressure.

患者可能会感到胃部不适,舌头、眼睛或面部肿胀。
The person can feel sick to the stomach, and develop swelling of the tongue, eyes or face.

严重的情况下,花生过敏可以致命,除非及时给孩子注射肾上腺素。
In severe cases, a peanut reaction can kill, unless the child is given an injection of epinephrine.

由于存在这些风险,医生一直强烈建议父母避免给婴儿喂食花生制品。
Because of such risks, doctors had been urging parents to avoid giving peanut products to babies.

但2015年的一项研究引发了医学专家对这些指南的重新考虑。
But a 2015 study led medical experts to reconsider the guidelines.

该研究涉及640名婴儿,他们均未满11个月。
The study involved 640 babies, all of whom were younger than 11 months old.

所有孩子都有鸡蛋过敏或湿疹的皮肤状况。
Each child had either an egg allergy or the skin condition eczema.

这两种疾病都会增加儿童花生过敏的风险。
Both disorders increase the child’s risk for developing a peanut allergy.

但研究人员发现,当这些高(过敏)风险的婴儿每周三次食用少量的花生酱时,
But researchers found that when these high-risk babies were fed a small amount of peanut butter three times a week,

5年后,只有3%的孩子出现过敏。
only three percent went on to develop the allergy after five years.

相比之下,不吃花生制品的儿童出现过敏的比例为17%。
By comparison, 17 percent of children who avoided peanuts became allergic.

在新的指南中,专家们提议将花生蛋白作为婴儿的首选食物之一。
In the new guidelines, the experts propose introducing peanut protein as one of a baby’s first foods.

克里斯托弗·沃伦在西北大学的芬伯格医学院与古普塔共事。
Christopher Warren works with Gupta at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

他告诉路透社:“很多人都认为这就是说只要给婴儿喂食一次花生制品即可,但重要的是要反复喂食,且要持续较长的时间。”
He told Reuters, "A lot of people assume that this just means feed it to (babies) once, but it is really important that you feed repeatedly and over a longer period of time."

沃伦补充道,这将帮助身体抵抗疾病的天然防御系统,学习如何加工和处理花生。
This, Warren added, will help the body’s natural defenses against disease learn how to process and deal with peanuts.

这种早期介入的方法还在其他主要的致敏食物上进行了测试,如牛奶、鸡蛋、鱼和小麦。
The method of early introduction has also been tested with other major allergenic foods, like milk, egg, fish and wheat.

专家指出,这种方法对鸡蛋和花生过敏尤其有效。
The method has been especially effective for both egg and peanut allergies, experts note.

阿什利·汤普森报道。
I’m Ashley Thompson.