芬兰将需要进口生物质来保暖
Finland Will Need to Import Biomass to Keep Warm

芬兰将需要进口生物质来保暖

Finland Will Need to Import Biomass to Keep Warm

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芬兰将需要进口生物质来保暖

Finland Will Need to Import Biomass to Keep Warm

2019-06-05

芬兰是欧洲森林最茂密的国家。这让芬兰拥有丰富的生物质资源。


芬兰是欧洲森林最茂密的国家。
Finland is the most heavily forested country in Europe.

这让芬兰拥有丰富的生物质资源。
That makes Finland rich in biomass.

生物质是从有机材料中开发出来的燃料,
Biomass is fuel developed from organic materials.

包括森林、部分树木以及动植物的粪便。
It includes forest, parts of trees as well as plant and animal waste.

然而,一旦停止使用煤炭,这个北欧国家可能很快就无法满足预期的70%的生物质燃料需求增长量。
Yet the northern European nation may soon be unable to meet an expected 70% rise in demand for biomass fuel once it stops using coal.

今年早些时候,芬兰通过了一项措施,要求2029年5月之前禁止在能源生产中使用煤炭。
Earlier this year, Finland approved a measure to ban the use of coal in energy production by May 2029.

电力公司现在将不得不寻找其他方法来保证芬兰人的温暖。
Power companies will now have to find other ways to keep Finns warm.

目前,煤炭约占家庭取暖能源的20%。
Coal currently makes up about 20% of the energy used for heating homes.

使用更多天然气生产热量的计划有限。
There are limited plans to use more natural gas to produce heat.

其他热源,如地热能和太阳能,在芬兰还没有商业可行性。
Other heating sources, such as geothermal energy and the sun’s energy, are not yet commercially viable in Finland.

换句话说,电力公司缺乏有效利用这些资源并从中获利的技术。
In other words, power companies lack the technology to effectively use such sources and earn a profit.

许多专家认为,使用更多的生物质是满足国家未来能源需求的最经济的方式。
Many experts believe that using more biomass is the most economical way of meeting the country’s future energy needs.

管理咨询服务公司贝利集团就芬兰的能源、工业和公共服务需求向政府提供了建议。
The management consulting service Poyry advises the government on Finland’s energy, industry and public service needs.

据估计,到2030年,光能源生产就需要64太瓦时的生物质。
It estimates that the country will need 64 terawatt hours’ worth of biomass in 2030 for energy production alone.

目前的使用量是38太瓦小时。
The current usage is 38 terawatt hours.

然而,从现在到2030年,芬兰的生物质供应预计只会增长8太瓦时。
However, Finland’s supply of biomass is expected to grow by only eight terawatt hours between now and 2030.

因此,贝利集团说,该国将不得不进口生物质,并改善其森林管理。
As a result, Poyry says the country will have to import biomass as well as improve its management of forests.

报告还说,芬兰将需要更多地依靠收获的植物废料来作为能源使用。
It also says Finland will need to depend more on harvested plant wastes for energy.

芬兰最大的特别利益集团针对能源问题还预测到,未来几年生物质的使用量将大幅增加。
Finland’s largest special interest group on energy issues also predicts large increases in the use of biomass in coming years.

朱卡·莱斯卡是一家名叫能源号组织的负责人。
Jukka Leskela is the head of the group, called Energia.

他说:“芬兰的能源政策将使我们成为生物质的净进口国,这有点尴尬。我们是一个森林国家。”
He said, "It’s slightly awkward that Finland would run an energy policy that will make us a net importer of biomass. We are a forest country."

他对路透社说。
He spoke to the Reuters news agency.

芬兰的森林覆盖率是75%。
Forests cover 75% of Finland’s land.

但是,砍伐的树木数量会受到法律的限制,大部分木材被保存下来用于制浆工业。
But the number of trees harvested is limited by law, with most of the wood saved for the pulp industry.

政府无法增加更多的能源供应。
The government would be unable to add much more supply for energy use.

利库·胡顿宁是芬兰能源办公室的负责人。
Riku Huttunen is head of Finland’s energy office.

他说:“现在的压力在于限制(国产)木材的使用……
He said, "The pressure is to limit the use of (domestic) wood...

木材通常用于木材多、人口少的地区,但现在我们谈论的是森林少、人口多的城镇。
it is normally used in the regions where there is a lot of wood and fewer people but now we are talking about towns with very little forest and many people.

很明显,我们需要进口。”
It is evident that we need imports."

胡顿宁补充说,从芬兰北部转移生物量也受到限制。
Huttunen added that moving biomass from northern Finland was also a limitation.

从邻国运送生物质的成本较低。
Shipping biomass from neighboring countries was less costly.

这些进口可能从波罗的海周边的其他国家来,如瑞典、爱沙尼亚和俄罗斯。
Such imports could come from other countries around the Baltic Sea, including Sweden, Estonia and Russia.

能源号组织估计,到2030年,生物质将占芬兰热电厂燃料组合的近60%。
Energia estimates show biomass will make up nearly 60 percent of the fuel mix in Finland’s combined heat and power factories in 2030.

这一比例高于目前不到30%的使用率。
That is up from the current usage of less than 30 percent.

芬兰有7座热电联产电厂,使用煤炭作为家庭和企业的主要或备用燃料。
Finland has seven combined heat and power plants that use coal either as the main or backup fuel for homes and businesses.

行业官员说,芬兰还将更多地使用热泵和数据中心的余热,以及蓄热等解决方法。
Industry officials say the country will also make greater use of heat pumps and surplus heat from data centers, as well as heat storage solutions.

吉尔·罗宾斯为您播报。
I’m Jill Robbins.