亚历山大·汉密尔顿:美国银行之父
Alexander Hamilton: Father of American Banking

亚历山大·汉密尔顿:美国银行之父

Alexander Hamilton: Father of American Banking

00:00

亚历山大·汉密尔顿:美国银行之父

Alexander Hamilton: Father of American Banking

2016-02-04

虽然亚历山大·汉密尔顿不是美国总统,但他却是美国早期最重要的领导人之一。他参与了美国独立战争,为让各大洲接受国家宪法攥写了强有力的论据,并且创办了美国国家银行,创立了经济体系。


虽然亚历山大·汉密尔顿不是美国总统,但他却是美国早期最重要的领导人之一。
Alexander Hamilton was not a U.S. president, but he was one of the most important early leaders of the United States.

他参与了美国独立战争,为让各州接受国家宪法攥写了强有力的论据,
He fought in the Revolutionary War, wrote powerful arguments to persuade the states to accept the Constitution,

并且创办了美国国家银行,创立了经济体系。
and helped create the country’s national banking and economic system.

1929年,美国财政部甚至将汉密尔顿的头像印在了10美元纸币上。
In 1929, the Treasury Department even put Alexander Hamilton’s face on the $10 bill.

2015年,音乐剧《汉密尔顿》成为百老汇最大的演出之一。
And in 2015, the musical “Hamilton” became one of the biggest shows on Broadway.

然而,汉密尔顿早年的故事并没有让这份馈赠成为可能。
But the story of Hamilton’s early life did not make this legacy likely.

1755年,汉密尔顿生在西印度群岛,是一个穷苦家庭的私生子。
Hamilton was born in 1755 to poor, unmarried parents in the West Indies.

他是个聪明的孩子,阅读了每本能够得到的书籍,无论是英语、拉丁语还是希腊语。
He was a bright child and read every book given to him -- in English, Latin and Greek.

汉密尔顿还学习了不少商业和经济知识。
Hamilton also learned a great deal about business and economics.

他曾说要做北美殖民地的政治领袖。
He talked about becoming a political leader in the North American colonies.

他的母亲在他11岁时去世了。
When Hamilton was 11 years old, his mother died.

汉密尔顿得到了一份给会计当助手的工作。
Hamilton got a job as an assistant bookkeeper.

他学会了如何记账。
He learned how to keep financial records.

尽管汉密尔顿的处境很是困难,一些人还是认识到了他的聪明才智和天赋。
Even though his situation was difficult, others recognized that Hamilton was smart and talented.

老板将他送往纽约学习。
Hamilton’s boss sent him to New York.

汉密尔顿成为了国王学院的学生,也就是后来的哥伦比亚大学。
He became a student at King’s College, later called Columbia University.

美国独立战争为汉密尔顿带来了施展才略的机会。
The American Revolution gave Hamilton the chance to show his abilities.

汉密尔顿支持了殖民地反对英国的独立战争。
Hamilton supported the colonies’ war of independence against Britain.

他成为了殖民地乔治·华盛顿将军的副官。
He became an aide to the colonies’ lead general, George Washington.

尽管汉密尔顿还很年轻--20岁出头--但华盛顿相信他是个杰出的作家和思想家。
Even though Hamilton was young – in his early 20s – Washington trusted him as an excellent writer and thinker.

汉密尔顿负责书写将军的书信。
Hamilton wrote the general’s letters.

为了给大陆军争取资金及补给,他不得不施展自己全部的政治技能和沟通技巧。
He had to use all his political and communication skills to get money and supplies for the Revolutionary Army.

汉密尔顿在战争期间迎娶了伊丽莎白·斯凯勒。
During the war, Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler.

伊丽莎白当时是美国最富有的家族成员之一。
She was a member of one of the nation’s wealthiest families.

随着时间的流逝,伊丽莎白和亚历山大·汉密尔顿曾于纽约和费城定居,并抚养了八个孩子。
Over time, Eliza and Alexander Hamilton made homes in New York and Philadelphia and raised eight children.

独立战争之后,汉密尔顿成为了纽约的一名律师。
After the Revolutionary War, Hamilton became a lawyer in New York.

这次,他又借助笔头的力量维护美国宪法。
He used the power of his pen again – this time, to defend the U.S. Constitution.

汉密尔顿是《联邦党人文集》的三位作者之一。
Hamilton was one of the authors of “The Federalist Papers.”

这一系列连续发布的报刊文章强烈要求新独立的州采纳宪法,并创立一个强有力的中央政府。
The series of newspaper articles urged the newly independent states to adopt the Constitution and create a strong central government.

在各大州同意批准宪法后,乔治·华盛顿成为了美国第一任总统。
After the states agreed to ratify the Constitution, George Washington became the country’s first president.

他要求汉密尔顿担任美国第一任财政部长。
He asked Hamilton to be the first Secretary of the Treasury.

建国初期,财政部长的角色是至关重要的。
The role of Secretary of the Treasury was critical in the early days of the new nation.

美国最紧迫的问题是还清债务。
America’s most urgent problem was figuring out ways to pay its debts.

这个国家在独立战争时期借入了太多外债,也允诺了大量资金。
The country had borrowed or promised a lot of money during the Revolutionary War.

汉密尔顿提议创建国家银行。
Hamilton proposed a national bank.

国会在1791年批准了这个想法。
Congress approved the idea in 1791.

银行实收资本1000万美元。
The bank had $10 million in capital.

它可借款给政府,也可偿还国债。
It could lend the government money and pay off state debts.

汉密尔顿的管理制度还包括创立了联邦制,用以征税。
Hamilton’s system also created a federal system to collect taxes.

然而,一些人不同意汉密尔顿的观点。
But not everyone accepted Hamilton’s views.

许多华盛顿总统的顾问,即内阁大臣,持反对意见。
Many of President Washington’s advisors – called his cabinet – opposed Hamilton.

反对者表明了反对美国汉密尔顿银行的诸多理由。
Opponents expressed many objections to Hamilton’s Bank of the United States.

一般来说,来自于北部州的国会成员支持他的观点,而南部州的国会成员则持反对意见。
Generally, members of Congress from the northern states supported the idea, while those from southern states opposed it.

托马斯·杰斐逊是美国又一政治领导者,他称,银行的权力远远越过了宪法的权力。
Another political leader, Thomas Jefferson, said the Bank exceeded the powers of the Constitution.

汉密尔顿捍卫创立银行的理念。
Hamilton defended the Bank.

他力求宽泛解释宪法。
He argued for a broad interpretation of the Constitution.

他认为,这个理念允许联邦政府做其所需,以强化国家的经济体系。
He thought it permitted the federal government to do what it needed to do to strengthen the country’s economic system.

汉密尔顿在这次政治争论中获得胜利。
Hamilton largely won his political arguments.

他成为了国家首个政党--联邦党的领导人。
He became the leader of the nation’s first political party, called the Federalist Party.

联邦党人主要位于商业化的东北部,他们支持建立一个强大的国家政府。
The Federalists, located mainly in the commercial Northeast, supported a strong national government.

联邦党人为国家经济奠定了基础,创造了司法制度,建立了外交政策原则。
They laid the foundation of a national economy, created a national judicial system and set up principles of foreign policy.

然而,正当汉密尔顿的公众生活走向成功之时,他的私人生活陷入了一团糟。
But while Hamilton’s public life was succeeding, his private life was running into trouble.

汉密尔顿承认了婚外恋,承认了对妻子的不忠。
Hamilton confessed to having an affair – to not being faithful to his wife.

他的大儿子为维护父亲的荣誉在一场决斗中丧生。
His oldest son fought a duel to defend Alexander Hamilton’s honor and was killed.

最终,汉密尔顿辞去了在乔治·华盛顿行政机构的工作。
Hamilton eventually resigned from George Washington’s administration.

随后他公开反对包括新上任的约翰·亚当斯总统以及阿伦·伯尔在内的其他政客。
And he publicly disagreed with other politicians, including the new president, John Adams, and a man named Aaron Burr.

反对汉密尔顿的人联合组成反对党,称之为共和党员,或有时也叫民主共和党员。
Many who disagreed with Hamilton united in an opposition party called the Republicans, or sometimes the Democrat-Republicans.

托马斯·杰斐逊是共和党领导人。
Thomas Jefferson was their leader.

尽管汉密尔顿与杰斐逊意见大多不一致,
Even though Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed about most things,

但在1800年总统选举中,相比阿伦·伯尔在内的其他主要候选人,汉密尔顿还是支持托马斯·杰斐逊的。
in the presidential election of 1800 Hamilton supported Thomas Jefferson over the other leading candidate, Aaron Burr.

他相信杰斐逊不会滥用总统职权。
Hamilton trusted Jefferson not to abuse the power of the presidency.

但是,阿伦·伯尔非常愤怒,因为汉密尔顿令其失去了竞选。
But Aaron Burr was angry that Hamilton had cost him the election.

随后,当伯尔竞选纽约州长一职时,汉密尔顿再次持反对意见。
Later, when Burr ran for governor of New York, Hamilton opposed him again.

伯尔向汉密尔顿发起进行决斗的挑战。
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel.

1804年7月11日黎明,两人在靠近曼哈顿地区、哈德逊河的新泽西一侧进行决斗。
At dawn on July 11, 1804, Hamilton and Burr fought a duel on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, near Manhattan.

他们从十步远的地方朝对方开枪。
They fired pistols from ten paces.

汉密尔顿中枪跌落在地。
Hamilton fell to the ground.

他被带回了曼哈顿的家,于次日逝世。
He was carried to his Manhattan home and died the next day.

仅仅三年前,汉密尔顿的儿子在同一地点中枪身亡。
Just three years earlier, Hamilton’s son had been shot on the same spot.

今天,美国人民牢记银行体系和经济体系的创造者亚历山大·汉密尔顿。
Today, Americans remember Alexander Hamilton as the architect of America’s banking and economic system.

他是首个财务部长,创立了美国中央银行。
He was the first secretary of the treasury and created America’s central bank.

汉密尔顿创建的体系赋予了这个处于建国初期的国家发行纸币的能力、
Hamilton’s system gave the new nation the ability to issue paper money,

借款给政府的能力及通过信贷延期促进商业和工业发展的能力。
lend the government money and promote business and industry by extending credit.

尽管许多人不同意汉密尔顿赋予中央政府的权力,
Even though many disagreed with the power Hamilton gave the central government,

汉密尔顿还是帮助美国与欧洲的国家处在同一财政基础上。
he helped place the United States on an equal financial footing with the nations of Europe.

乔纳森·埃文斯为您报道。
I’m Jonathan Evans.